List of Studies Supporting the Use of Neurofeedback for Developmental and Learning Disorders:

  1. Albert, A.O, Andrasik, F, Moore, J.L & Dunn, B.R. (1998). Theta/beta training for attention, concentration and memory improvement in the geriatric population. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback,23(2), 109. Abstract.
  2. Alhambra, M.A, Fowler, T.P, & Alhambra A.A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy,1(2), 39-43.
  3. Barabasz, A, & Barabasz, M. (1996). Neurotherapy and alter hynosis in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Chapter in Lynn, Kirsch, Rhue (EDs.), Casebook of Clinical Hypnosis. Washington D.C: American Psychological Association Press, pp. 271- 292.
  4. Barabasz, A & Barabasz, M. (2000). Treating AD/HD with hypnosis and neurotherapy. Child Study Journal,30 (1),25-42.
  5. Beauregard, M & Levesque, J (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurfeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1) 3-20.
  6. Becerra, J., Fernndez, T., Harmony T., Caballero M.I, Garcia F., Fernandez-Bouzas A., Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcala R.A. (2006) "Follow-up study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo." Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 37(3), 198-203.
  7. Boyd, W.D & Campbell, S.E. (1998) EEG biofeedback in schools: The use of EEG biofeedback to treat ADHD in a school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 65-71.
  8. Budzynski, T.H. (1996). Braining brightening: Can neurofeedback improve cognitive process? Biofeedback, 24(2), 14-17.
  9. Carmody, D. P., Radvanski, D. C., Wadhwani, S., Sabo, J. J., & Vergara, L. (2001). EEG biofeedback training and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an elementary school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 5-27.
  10. Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991). Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4(1), 66-67.
  11. Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981). The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4), 204-208.
  12. Drechsler R, Straub M, Doehnert M, Heinrich H, Steinhausen H, Brandeis D. (2007). Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with ADHD. Behavioral & Brain Functions, 3, 35
  13. Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 4155-4159.
  14. Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004).EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials.Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(1), 131-139.
  15. Fehmi, L. G. (2007). Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 301-319.
  16. Fehmi, L. G., & Selzer, F. A. (1980). Biofeedback and attention training. Chapter in S. Boorstein (Ed.), Transpersonal Psychotherapy. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books.
  17. Fehmi, L. G. (1978). EEG biofeedback, multichannel synchrony training, and attention. Chapter in A. A.
  18. Sugarman & R. E. Tarter (Eds.), Expanding Dimensions of Consciousness. New York: Springer.
  19. Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., Ricardo-Garcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 34(3), 145-150.
  20. Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005). Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 35-46.
  21. Foks, M. (2005).Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs. Educational & Child Psychology, 22(3), 67-77.
  22. Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365-274.
  23. Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 1-12.
  24. Gani C, Birbaumer N & Strehl U. (2008). Long term effects after feedback of slow cortical potentials and of theta-beta amplitudes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism, 10(4), 209-232.
  25. Hansen, L. M., Trudeau, D., & Grace, L. (1996). Neurotherapy and drug therapy in combination for adult ADHD, personality disorder, and seizure. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(1), 6-14.
  26. Hirshberg, L. M. (2007). Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7(4), 315-319.
  27. Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982). Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7(2), 211-221.
  28. Jacobs, E. H. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55-70.
  29. Kaiser, D. A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 5-15.
  30. Kirk, L. (2007). Neurofeedback protocols for subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 267-299.
  31. Kotwal, D. B., Burns, W. J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1996). Computer-assisted cognitive training for ADHD: A case study. Behavior Modification, 20(1), 85-96.
  32. Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., & Nikishena, I. S. (2007). Changes in EEG spectograms, event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization induced by relative beta training in ADHD children. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 3-11.
  33. Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., Nildshena, I. S. (2005). ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55(1), 23-34.
  34. Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, M., & Strehl, U. (2007). Neurofeedback for Children with ADHD: A Comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta Protocols. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32
  35. Levesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006). Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 394(3), 216-221.
  36. Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(1), 35-49.
  37. Loo, S., & Barkley, R. (2005). Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Neuropsychology, 12(2), 64-76.
  38. Lubar, J. F. (1985). EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 26, 106-111
  39. Lubar, J. F. (1995). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz (Ed.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide. New York, Guilford, 493-522.
  40. Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide Third Edition. New York, Guilford, 409-437.
  41. Lubar, J. O., & Lubar, J. F. (1984). Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 9, 1-23.
  42. Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293-306.
  43. Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1977).Use of biofeedback in the treatment of seizure disorders and hyperactivity. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 204-251.
  44. Lubar, J. F., Swartwood, M. O., Swartwood, J. N., & O'Donnell, P. H. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A., scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(1), 83-99.
  45. Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N. (1982) Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance. Biological Psychology, 14, 99-111.
  46. McKnight, J. T., & Fehmi, L. G. (2001). Attention and neurofeedback synchrony training: Clinical results and their significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 45-62.
  47. Monastra, V. J., (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Rationale and empirical foundation. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 55-82.
  48. Monastra, V. J., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J. F., Gruzelier, J., & LaVaque, T. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(2), 95-114.
  49. Monastra, V. J., Monastra, D. M., & George, S. (2002). The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(4), 231-249.
  50. Mulholland, T. Goodman, D., & Boudrot, R. (1983). Attention and regulation of EEG alpha-attenuation responses. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(4), 585-600.
  51. Nash, J. K. (2000). Treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with neurotherapy. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 30-37.
  52. Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29-44.
  53. Norris, S. L., Lee, C., Cea, J., & Burshteyn, D. (1998). Performance enhancement training effects on attention: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3(1), 19-25.
  54. Orlando, P. C., & Rivera, R. O. (2004). Neurofeedback for elementary students with identified learning problems. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 5-19.
  55. Othmer, S., Othmer, S. F., & Kaiser, D. A. (1999). EEG biofeedback: Training for AD/HD and related disruptive behavior disorders. Chapter in
  56. A. Incorvaia & B. F. Mark-Goldstein, & D. Tessmer (Eds.), Understanding, Diagnosing, & Treating AD/HD in Children and Adolescents. New York: Aronson, 235-297
  57. Patrick, G. J. (1996). Improved neuronal regulation in ADHD: An application of 15 sessions of photic-driven EEG neurotherapy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(4), 27-36.
  58. Pratt, R. R., Abel, H., & Skidmore, J. (1995). The effects of neurofeedback training with background music on EEG patterns of ADD and ADHD children. International Journal of Arts Medicine, 4(1), 24-31.
  59. Pulvermuller, F., Mohr, B., Schleichert, H., & Veit, R. (2000). Operant conditioning of left-hemispheric slow cortical potentials and its effect on word processing. Biological Psychology, 53, 177-215.
  60. Putnam, J. A., Othmer, S. F., Othmer, S., & Pollock, V. E. (2005). TOVA results following interhemispheric bipolar EEG training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 37-52.
  61. Rasey, H. W., Lubar, J. E., McIntyre, A., Zoffuto, A. C., & Abbott, P. L. (1996). EEG biofeedback for the enhancement of attentional processing in normal college students. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(3), 15-21.
  62. Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1990). Biofeedback: Evaluation and therapy in children with attentional dysfunction.
  63. Chapter in A. Rothenberger (Ed.), Brain and Behaviour in Child Psychiatry. Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 345-357.
  64. Rossiter, T. R. (2004). The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of methodological issues. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29(2), 135-140.
  65. Rossiter, T. R. (2005). The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part II.Replication. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29(4), 233-243.
  66. Rossiter, T. (2002). Neurofeedback for AD/HD: A ratio feedback case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(3), 9-35.
  67. Rossiter, T. R. (1998). Patient directed neurofeedback for ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 54-63.
  68. Rossiter, T. R., & La Vaque, T. J. (1995). A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1, 48-59.
  69. Russell, H. L., & Carter, J. L. (1997). EEG Driven Audio-Visual Stimulation Unit for Enhancing Cognitive Abilities of Learning Disordered Boys: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (SBIR), Contract number RA94130002.
  70. Scheinbaum, S., Zecker, S., Newton, C. J., & Rosenfeld, P. (1995 ). A controlled study of EEG biofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit disorders. In "Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback" pp. 131-134.
  71. Sheer, D. E. (1975). Biofeedback training of 40-Hz EEG and behavior. Chapter in N. Burch & H. I. Altshuler (Eds.), Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity. New York: Plenum.
  72. Sheer, D. E. (1977). Biofeedback training of 40-Hz EEG and behavior. Chapter in J. Kamiya et al., Biofeedback and Self-Control 1976/1977. An Annual Review. Chicago: Aldine.
  73. Shin, D. I., Lee, J. H., Lee, S. M., Kim, I. Y., & Kim, S. I. (2004). Neurofeedback training with virtual reality for inattention and impulsiveness. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(5), 519-526.
  74. Shouse, M. N., & Lubar, J. F. (1979). Operant conditioning of EEG rhythms and Ritalin in the treatment of hyperkinesis. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 4(4), 299-311.
  75. Stankus, T. (2008). Can the brain be trained? Comparing the literature on the use of EEG biofeedback/neurofeedback as an alternative or complementary therapy for attention deficit disorder (ADHD). Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 26(4), 20-56.
  76. Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., and Birbaumer, N. (2006). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: A new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 118, 1530-1540.
  77. Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2010). Post WISC-R and TOVA improvement with QEEG guided neurofeedback training in mentally retarded: A clinical case series of behavioral problems. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 41(1), 32-41.
  78. Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2007). EEG neurofeedback treatment of patients with Down Syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 63-68.
  79. Swingle, P. G. (2001). Parameters associated with rapid neurotherapeutic treatment of common ADD (CADD). Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 73-84.
  80. Swingle, P. G. (1996). Sub threshold 10-Hz sound suppresses EEG theta: Clinical application for the potentiation of neurotherapeutic treatment of ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(1), 15-22.
  81. Tansey, M. A. (1984). EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: Some effects on the neurological precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-99.
  82. Tansey, M. A. (1985). Brainwave signatures--An index reflective of the brain=s functional neuroanatomy: Further findings on the effect of EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-89.
  83. Tansey, M. A. (1990). Righting the rhythms of reason: EEG biofeedback training as a therapeutic modality in a clinical office setting. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 57-68.
  84. Tansey, M. A. (1991). Wechsler (WISC-R) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via EEG biofeedback in a private practice setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 43, 147-153.
  85. Tansey, M. A. (1993). Ten-year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade perceptually impaired class. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 18, 33-44.
  86. Tansey, M. A., & Bruner, R. L. (1983). EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of 10-year old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(1), 25-37.
  87. Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (1998). Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: Effectiveness in students with ADD. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(4), 243-263.
  88. Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137-162.
  89. Tinius, T. P., & Tinius, K. A. (2001). Changes after EEG biofeedback and cognitive retraining in adults with mild traumatic brain injury and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 27-44.
  90. Valdez, M. (1985). Effects of biofeedback-assisted attention training in a college population. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 10(4), 315-324.
  91. Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-85.
  92. Wadhwani, S., Radvanski, D. C., & Carmody, D. P. (1998). Neurofeedback training in a case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3(1), 42-49.
  93. Walker, J. E., & Norman, C. A. (2006). The neurophysiology of dyslexia: A selective review with implications for neurofeedback remediation and results of treatment in twelve consecutive patients. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(1), 45-55.
  94. Warner, D.A., Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000). The efficacy of Barabasz's alert hypnosis and neurotherapy on attentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Child Study Journal, 30(1), 43-49.
  95. Xiong, Z., Shi, S., & Xu, H. (2005). A controlled study of the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 25(3), 368-370.

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